Relationship between Intracranial Pressure and Cortical Spreading Depression following Fluid Percussion Brain Injury in Rats

Authors: G.G. Rogatsky, J. Sonn, Y. Kamenir, N. Zarchin, A. Mayevsky. Journal of Neurotrauma. December 2003.

The rising number of cortical spreading depression (CSD) cycles under condition of an ICP level ≥20 mm Hg may demonstrate, with high probability, the unfavorable development of TBI, caused by growing secondary hypoxic insult.

 

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) and in some cases, by spontaneous generation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) cycles. However, the role of CSD in the pathophysiology of cerebral contusion is still unknown. A multiparametric monitoring assembly was placed on the right hemisphere of the rat brain to evaluate ICP, DC potential, extracellular K+, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and electrocorticogram in 27 rats during 5 h. Fluid percussion brain injury (FPBI) with the magnitude of the impact 2.9, 3.3, 4.1, and 5.0 atmospheres was induced to the left parietal cortex in animal groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. A slow increase in ICP was evident, and was pronounced in group C and especially in group D, where four of nine animals died during the monitoring. At the end of the 5 h experiment, the mean ICP levels were 6.75 ± 2.87, 8.40 ± 2.70, 12.75 ± 4.03, 29.56 ± 9.25, and the mean total number of CSD cycles was 2.00 ± 1.41, 4.29 ± 4.23, 11.71 ± 13.29, and 20.11 ± 19.26 in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The maximal level of intensity of CSD cycle generation after FPBI was obtained in group D, where almost constant activity was maintained until the end of the experiment. A significant coefficient of correlation between ICP level and total number of CSD cycles was found for all ICP measurements (r = 0.47-0.63, p < 0.05, n = 27), however more significant (p < 0.001) was the coefficient during the period of monitoring between 2 and 4 h after FPBI. Our results suggest that numerous repeating CSD cycles are typical phenomena in moderate and especially severe forms of FPBI. The rising number of CSD cycles under condition of an ICP level ≥20 mm Hg may demonstrate, with high probability, the unfavorable development of TBI, caused by growing secondary hypoxic insult.

Full text and Source: Marie Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers