Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pediatric population: Case series from India

Authors: Roy AG, Vinayan KP, Kumar A.

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a well described entity in adults. In pediatric age group the presentation of disease can vary depending on the age of patients and is less frequently reported. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features, investigations, treatment and outcome of IIH in pediatric population (age <18 years). Materials and Methods: This retrospective hospital based study was carried out on 25 children with diagnosis of IIH based on modified Dandys criteria. Their clinical, investigation, treatment, outcome and follow-up for 2 year period were analyzed. Results: Out of the 25 children, the youngest child was 4-month-old infant. The commonest symptom was headache (76%) followed by vomiting and papilledema (72%). The mean cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure was 330 mm of H 2 O. In Infants irritability and bulging anterior fontanelle was seen. A total of 24 patients showed a complete resolution of symptom. None of patient had recurrence over a period of 2 years follow-up. Conclusion: IIH can present at any age group. This is the largest series of IIH reported in pediatric population in India. The clinical features are similar to adult patients except in infants. Absence of papilledema does not exclude the diagnosis of IIH. CSF pressure monitoring is needed in suspected cases of IIH. Early and prompt treatment can prevent deficits.

Changes of cerebrospinal fluid pressure after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

Authors: Xue L, Luo JF, Liu Y, Huang WH, Ni ZH, He PC, Xie NJ, Fan RX, Luo SY, Chen JY.

BACKGROUND: Decreasing the intracranial pressure has been advocated as one of the major protective strategies to prevent spinal cord ischemia after endovascular aortic repair. However, the actual changes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and its relation with spinal cord ischemia have been poorly understood. We performed CSF pressure measurements and provisional CSF withdrawal after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and compared the changes of CSF pressure in high risk patients and in patients with new onset paraplegia and paraparesis.
METHODS: Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluated for the risk of spinal cord ischemia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Patients with identified risk factors before the procedure constituted group H and received prophylactic sequential CSF pressure measurement and CSF withdrawal. Patients who actually developed spinal cord ischemia constituted group P and received rescue CSF pressure measurements and CSF withdrawal.
RESULTS: Among the 419 patients evaluated, 17 were graded as high risk. Four patients actually developed spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair. The incidence of spinal cord ischemia in this investigation was 0.9%. The patients who actually developed spinal cord ischemia had no identified risk factors and had elevated CSF pressure, ranging from 15.4 to 30.0 mmHg. Six of the 17 patients graded as high risk had elevated CSF pressure: >20 mmHg in two patients and >15 mmHg in four patients. Sequential CSF pressure measurements and provisional withdrawal successfully decrease CSF pressure and prevented symptomatic spinal cord ischemia in high-risk patients. However, these measurements could only successfully reverse the neurologic deficit in two of the patients who actually developed spinal cord ischemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrospinal fluid pressure was elevated in patients with spinal cord ischemia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Sequential measurements of CSF pressure and provisional withdrawal of CSF decreased CSF pressure effectively in high risk patients and provided effective prevention of spinal cord ischemia. Risk factor identification and prophylactic measurements play the key role in prevention of spinal cord ischemia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

Intracranial bleeding following induction of anesthesia in a patient undergoing elective surgery for refractory epilepsy

Authors: Kandasamy R, Tharakan J, Idris Z, Abdullah JM.

BACKGROUND: A patient with refractory epilepsy due to underlying mesial temporal sclerosis underwent general anesthesia for an elective anterior temporal lobectomy and amgydalo-hippocampectomy. He was a known hypertensive and his blood pressure was well controlled on medication.
CASE DESCRIPTION: Following induction of general anesthesia and subsequent opening of the craniotomy flap it was noted that the patient had a very swollen brain that herniated out of the dural defect. There was an underlying spontaneous intraparenchymal bleed encountered in the region of the left temporal lobe with associated subarachnoid hemorrhage within the sylvian fissure. The clot was evacuated and subsequently brain swelling reduced allowing us to proceed with the intended surgery. Despite the intracranial findings there was no overt abnormality in the hemodynamic status from the time of induction of anesthesia to the craniotomy opening excepting a mild nonsustained elevation of blood pressure at the outset.
CONCLUSION: This case is of interest due to the fact that spontaneous intraparenchymal bleeding after induction of anesthesia has not been reported before in literature and should be considered in any patient in which brain swelling occurs in a setting of elective neurosurgery in which the primary lesion does not cause elevated intracranial pressure.

The role of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in glaucoma and other ophthalmic diseases: A review

Authors: Fleischman D, Allingham RR.

Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness in the world. Well-known risk factors include age, race, a positive family history and elevated intraocular pressures. A newly proposed risk factor is decreased cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). This concept is based on the notion that a pressure differential exists across the lamina cribrosa, which separates the intraocular space from the subarachnoid fluid space. In this construct, an increased translaminar pressure difference will occur with a relative increase in elevated intraocular pressure or a reduction in CSFP. This net change in pressure is proposed to act on the tissues within the optic nerve head, potentially contributing to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Similarly, patients with ocular hypertension who have elevated CSFPs, would enjoy a relatively protective effect from glaucomatous damage. This review will focus on the current literature pertaining to the role of CSFP in glaucoma. Additionally, the authors examine the relationship between glaucoma and other known CSFP-related ophthalmic disorders.

CSF dynamic analysis of a predictive pulsatility-based infusion test for normal pressure hydrocephalus

Authors: Qvarlander S, Malm J, Eklund A.

Disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics are part of the pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and can be modified and treated with shunt surgery. This study investigated the contribution of established CSF dynamic parameters to AMPmean, a prognostic variable defined as mean amplitude of cardiac-related intracranial pressure pulsations during 10 min of lumbar constant infusion, with the aim of clarifying the physiological interpretation of the variable. AMPmean and CSF dynamic parameters were determined from infusion tests performed on 18 patients with suspected NPH. Using a mathematical model of CSF dynamics, an expression for AMPmean was derived and the influence of the different parameters was assessed. There was high correlation between modelled and measured AMPmean (r = 0.98, p < 0.01). Outflow resistance and three parameters relating to compliance were identified from the model. Correlation analysis of patient data confirmed the effect of the parameters on AMPmean (Spearman's ρ = 0.58-0.88, p < 0.05). Simulated variations of ±1 standard deviation (SD) of the parameters resulted in AMPmean changes of 0.6-2.9 SD, with the elastance coefficient showing the strongest influence. Parameters relating to compliance showed the largest contribution to AMPmean, which supports the importance of the compliance aspect of CSF dynamics for the understanding of the pathophysiology of NPH.

Changing the hemodialysis prescription for hemodialysis patients with subdural and intracranial hemorrhage

Authors: Davenport A.

Although continuous modalities of renal replacement therapy offer an advantage to the patient with compromised cerebral perfusion and intracranial hypertension, they are generally limited to the intensive care unit setting. Many hemodialysis patients admitted with strokes and subdural hematoma are managed on general wards. As such, these patients are generally treated by intermittent hemodialysis, and their dialysis prescription should be altered to minimize changes in serum osmolality, and fall in blood pressure during dialysis. Such patients require more frequent but shorter dialysis sessions, using minimally bioincompatible small surface area dialyzers with lower blood flows, in combination with higher sodium and cooled dialysate. In patients at risk of intracranial hemorrhage and those with invasive intracranial monitoring, systemic anticoagulants should be avoided, choosing no anticoagulation protocols or regional anticoagulants.

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