cerebrovascular pressure

Effects of xenon and hypothermia on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in newborn global hypoxic-ischemic pig model

Authors: Chakkarapani E, Dingley J, Aquilina K, Osredkar D, Liu X, Thoresen M.

Autoregulation of cerebral perfusion is impaired in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated whether cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (PRx), an element of cerebral autoregulation that is calculated as a moving correlation coefficient between averages of intracranial and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with values between -1 and +1, is impaired during and after a hypoxic-ischemic insult (HI) in newborn pigs. Associations between end-tidal CO2, seizures, neuropathology, and PRx were investigated. The effect of hypothermia (HT) and Xenon (Xe) on PRx was studied. Pigs were randomized to Sham, and after HI to normothermia (NT), HT, Xe or xenon hypothermia (XeHT). We defined PRx >0.2 as peak and negative PRx as preserved. Neuropathology scores after 72 hours of survival was grouped as 'severe' or 'mild.' Secondary PRx peak during recovery, predictive of severe neuropathology and associated with insult severity (P=0.05), was delayed in HT (11.5 hours) than in NT (6.5 hours) groups. Seizures were associated with impaired PRx in NT pigs (P=0.0002), but not in the HT/XeHT pigs. PRx was preserved during normocapnia and impaired during hypocapnia. Xenon abolished the secondary PRx peak, increased (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) MABP (6.5 (3.8, 9.4) mm Hg) and cerebral perfusion pressure (5.9 (2.9, 8.9) mm Hg) and preserved the PRx (regression coefficient, -0.098 (95% CI (-0.18, -0.01)), independent of the insult severity.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 31 July 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.123.

Cerebrovascular Pressure Reactivity and Cerebral Oxygen Regulation After Severe Head Injury

Authors: Jaeger M, Lang EW.

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between cerebrovascular pressure reactivity and cerebral oxygen regulation after head injury.
METHODS: Continuous monitoring of the partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbrO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) in 11 patients. The cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index (PRx) was calculated as the moving correlation coefficient between MAP and ICP. For assessment of the cerebral oxygen regulation system a brain tissue oxygen response (TOR) was calculated, where the response of PbrO2 to an increase of the arterial oxygen through ventilation with 100 % oxygen for 15 min is tested. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed before and after changing ventilator settings.
RESULTS: Arterial oxygen increased from 108 ± 6 mmHg to 494 ± 68 mmHg during ventilation with 100 % oxygen. PbrO2 increased from 28 ± 7 mmHg to 78 ± 29 mmHg, resulting in a mean TOR of 0.48 ± 0.24. Mean PRx was 0.05 ± 0.22. The correlation between PRx and TOR was r = 0.69, P = 0.019. The correlation of PRx and TOR with the Glasgow outcome scale at 6 months was r = 0.47, P = 0.142; and r = -0.33, P = 0.32, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a strong link between cerebrovascular pressure reactivity and the brain's ability to control for its extracellular oxygen content. Their simultaneous impairment indicates that their common actuating element for cerebral blood flow control, the cerebral resistance vessels, are equally impaired in their ability to regulate for MAP fluctuations and changes in brain oxygen.

The Values of Cerebrovascular Pressure Reactivity and Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure Reactivity in Experimental Anhepatic Liver Failure

Authors: Grözinger G, Schenk M, Morgalla MH, Thiel C, Thiel K, Schuhmann MU.

BACKGROUND: We investigated in a porcine model of anhepatic acute liver failure (ALF), the value of two parameters describing cerebrovascular autoregulatory capacity, pressure reactivity index (PRx) and brain tissue oxygen pressure reactivity (ORx), regarding their power to predict the development of intracranial hypertension.
METHODS: In six pigs, hepatectomy was performed. Only one animal was sham operated. All animals received neuromonitoring including arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain tissue partial oxygen pressure (P(br)O(2)). The average time of neuromonitoring was 31.0 h. Cerebral perfusion pressures (CPP), cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index (PRx) and brain tissue oxygen reactivity index (ORx) were calculated.
RESULTS: Perioperative disturbance of AR improved within 4 h after surgery. From 6 to 16 h post hepatectomy, ICP did slowly increase by 4 mmHg from baseline; CPP remained stable around 40 mmHg. PRx and ORx, however, indicated in this period a progressive loss of AR, reflected in a decrease of P(br)O(2) despite unchanged CPP. Beyond 16 h, ICP rose quickly. At CPP levels below 35 mmHg, P(br)O(2) fell to ischemic levels.
CONCLUSIONS: The loss of cerebrovascular autoregulatory capacity, indicated by a rise of PRx and ORx precedes the final crisis of uncontrollable intracranial hypertension in this animal model by hours. During this phase cerebral blood flow, as reflected in tissue oxygenation, deteriorates despite unchanged CPP. Monitoring of AR during ALF therefore seems to carry the power to identify a risk for development of critical CBF and intracranial hypertension.

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