mortality

Traumatic brain injury related hospitalization and mortality in california

Authors: Lagbas C, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Shaheen M, Kermah D, Pan D.

Objective. The aim of this study is to describe the traumatic brain injury (TBI) population and causes and identify factors associated with TBI hospitalizations and mortality in California. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of 61,188 patients with TBI from the California Hospital Discharge Data 2001 to 2009. We used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses in SAS version 9.3. Results. TBI-related hospitalizations decreased by 14% and mortality increased by 19% from 2001 to 2009. The highest percentages of TBI hospitalizations were due to other causes (38.4%), falls (31.2%), being of age ≥75 years old (37.2%), being a males (58.9%), and being of Medicare patients (44%). TBIs due to falls were found in those age ≤4 years old (53.5%), ≥75 years old (44.0%), and females (37.2%). TBIs due to assaults were more frequent in Blacks (29.0%). TBIs due to motor vehicle accidents were more frequent in 15-19 and 20-24 age groups (48.7% and 48.6%, resp.) and among Hispanics (27.8%). Higher odds of mortality were found among motor vehicle accident category (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41); males (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.27-1.46); and the ≥75-year-old group (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.9-8.4). Conclusions. Our findings suggest a decrease in TBI-related hospitalizations but an increase in TBI-related mortality during the study period. The majority of TBI-related hospitalizations was due to other causes and falls and was more frequent in the older, male, and Medicare populations. The higher likelihood of TBI-related mortalities was found among elderly male ≥75 years old who had motor vehicle accidents. Our data can inform practitioners, prevention planners, educators, service sectors, and policy makers who aim to reduce the burden of TBI in the community. Implications for interventions are discussed.

Mortality and long-term functional outcome associated with intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury

Authors: Badri S, Chen J, Barber J, Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Chesnut RM, Deem S, Yanez ND, Treggiari MM.

PURPOSE: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) has been associated with increased mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have examined whether raised ICP is independently associated with mortality, functional status and neuropsychological functioning in adult TBI patients.
METHODS: Data from a randomized trial of 499 participants were secondarily analyzed. The primary endpoints were mortality and a composite measure of functional status and neuropsychological function (memory, speed of information processing, executive function) over a 6-month period. The area under the curve of the ICP profile (average ICP) during the first 48 h of monitoring was the main predictor of interest. Multivariable regression was used to adjust for a priori defined confounders: age, Glasgow Coma Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale-head and hypoxia.
RESULTS: Of the participants, 365 patients had complete 48-h ICP data. The overall 6-month mortality was 18 %. The adjusted odds ratio of mortality comparing 10-mmHg increases in average ICP was 3.12 (95 % confidence interval 1.79, 5.44; p < 0.01). Overall, higher average ICP was associated with decreased functional status and neuropsychological functioning (p < 0.01). Importantly, among survivors, increasing average ICP was not independently associated with worse performance on neuropsychological testing (p = 0.46).
CONCLUSIONS: Average ICP in the first 48 h of monitoring was an independent predictor of mortality and of a composite endpoint of functional and neuropsychological outcome at the 6-month follow-up in moderate or severe TBI patients. However, there was no association between average ICP and neuropsychological functioning among survivors.

Beating the weekend trend: increased mortality in older adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients admitted on weekends

Authors: Schneider EB, Hirani SA, Hambridge HL, Haut ER, Carlini AR, Castillo RC, Efron DT, Haider AH.

BACKGROUND: Weekend admission is associated with mortality in cardiovascular emergencies and stroke but the effect of weekend admission for trauma is not well defined. We sought to determine whether differences in mortality outcomes existed for older adults with substantial head trauma admitted on a weekday versus over the weekend.
METHODS: Data from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were combined and head trauma admissions were isolated. Abbreviated injury scale (AIS) scores were calculated using ICDMAP-90 Software. Individuals aged 65 to 89 y with head AIS equal to 3 or 4 and no other region score <3 were included. Individual Charlson comorbidity scores were calculated and individuals with missing mortality, sex, or insurance data were excluded. Wilcoxon rank sum and Student t-tests compared demographics, length of stay, and total charges for weekday versus weekend admissions. The χ2 tests compared sex and head injury severity. Logistic regression modeled mortality adjusting for age, sex, injury severity, comorbidity, and insurance status.
RESULTS: Of the 38,675 patients meeting criteria, 9937 (25.6%) were admitted on weekends. Mean age was similar (78.4 versus 78.4, P = 0.796) but more weekend admissions were female (51.6% versus 50.2%, P = 0.022). Weekend patients demonstrated slightly lower comorbidity (mean Charlson = 1.07 versus 1.14, P < 0.001) and head injury severity (58.3% versus 60.8% AIS = 4, P < 0.001). Median weekend length of stay was shorter (4 versus 5 d, P < 0.001). Weekend and weekday median total charges did not differ ($27,128 versus $27,703, respectively, P = 0.667). Proportional mortality was higher among weekend patients (9.3% versus 8.4%, P = 0.008). After adjustment, weekend patients demonstrated 14% increased odds of mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23).
CONCLUSION: Older adults with substantial head trauma admitted on weekends are less severely injured, carry less comorbidity, and generate similar total charges compared with those admitted on weekdays. However, after accounting for known risk confounders, weekend patients demonstrated 14% greater odds of mortality. Mechanisms behind this disparity must be determined and eliminated.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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