Sclerosis

Increased intracranial pressure in a case of pediatric multiple sclerosis

Authors: Brice J Williams, Holly J Skinner, Bernard L Maria.

A 15-year-old girl presented to our emergency department with dizziness, anorexia, nausea, and malaise. Clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging studies showed characteristic features of multiple sclerosis. Surprisingly, a diagnostic lumbar puncture showed significant intracranial hypertension in addition to numerous oligoclonal bands, elevated immunoglobulin G index and immunoglobulin G/albumin ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is proposed that a large burden of active demyelinating disease may cause increased intracranial pressure, thus providing an additional sound rationale for prompt therapeutic administration of intravenous high-dose steroids.

Mild traumatic brain injury: a risk factor for neurodegeneration

Authors: Brandon E Gavett 1,2, Robert A Stern 1,2, Robert C Cantu 2,3,4, Christopher J Nowinski 2,3 and Ann C McKee 1,2,5,6 *.

Recently, it has become clear that head trauma can lead to a progressive neurodegeneration known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Although the medical literature also implicates head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, these findings are predominantly based on clinical diagnostic criteria that lack specificity. The dementia that follows head injuries or repetitive mild trauma may be caused by chronic traumatic encephalopathy, alone or in conjunction with other neurodegenerations (for example, Alzheimer's disease). Prospective longitudinal studies of head-injured individuals, with neuropathological verification, will not only improve understanding of head trauma as a risk factor for dementia but will also enhance treatment and prevention of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.

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