Pseudotumor Cerebri

Usefulness of intracranial pressure continuous monitoring in pseudotumor cerebri

Authors: Horcajadas Almansa A, Cordero Tous N, Román Cutillas A, Saura Rojas E, Jorques Infante A, Iáñez Velasco B, Sánchez Corral C.

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the usefulness of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in pseudotumor cerebri (PTC).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with suspected PTC, but having incomplete criteria for the syndrome, on whom ICP monitoring was performed. Demographic, clinical and radiological data were collected, as well as ICP monitoring data and related complications. Results were evaluated 6months after surgery.

RESULTS: In relation to demographics, all patients were young females. Mean ICP was less than 250mmH2O in 5 of 8 patients with pathological monitoring. Most patients (62.5%) showed A waves; these were related with higher mean ICP, but not always with papilloedema. All recordings showed high amplitude B waves. Most pathological recordings showed wave amplitudes superior to 5mmHg. There were no complications related to the monitoring technique.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and lumbar opening pressure data are not enough to establish PTC diagnosis correctly, especially if patient has been treated previously. Monitoring using ICP is a valuable, safe tool, and very useful in this syndrome. Mean ICP could be normal even with pathological recordings. Morphological analysis is necessary to establish diagnosis. A and B waves are highly related to shunt response. Wave amplitude is related to brain compliance and to shunt response as well.

Association between visual parameters and neuroimaging features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Authors: Padhye LV, Van Stavern GP, Sharma A, Viets R, Huecker JB, Gordon MO.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Papilledema refers to optic disc swelling resulting from high intracranial pressure (ICP). The precise mechanism by which papilledema occurs remains uncertain. Although orbital neuroimaging features associated with papilledema are well-described, it is unclear whether these findings correlate with visual function. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is a condition in which the intracranial pressure is elevated with no obvious cause, causing papilledema and visual loss. The utility of papilledema and IIH neuroimaging findings as a surrogate marker for visual loss, or a predictor of visual loss, is understudied. This retrospective cross-sectional review aims to correlate parameters of visual function with orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
METHODS: Patients meeting criteria for IIH who had received orbital imaging within 4weeks of examination were included. Visual parameters of papilledema grade, visual field mean deviation, and visual acuity were correlated with neuroimaging features, including optic nerve thickness, and optic nerve sheath thickness, among others. All MRI scans were reviewed by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical status. Spearman rank correlations and t-tests were generated with SAS (v9.2).
RESULTS: Thirty five patients were included. No significant relationships were found between the main visual parameters of papilledema grade and visual field mean deviation, and MRI findings.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant correlation between visual parameters and imaging features of papilledema. This might indicate that MRI features may provide insight into the structural changes that occur in papilledema, but may not be helpful when making clinical management decisions for patients with IIH in particular, and papilledema in general.

Viral-Induced Intracranial Hypertension Mimicking Pseudotumor Cerebri

Authors: Ravid S, Shachor-Meyouhas Y, Shahar E, Kra-Oz Z, Kassis I.

BACKGROUND: Pseudotumor cerebri or idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by normal spinal fluid composition and increased intracranial pressure in the absence of a space-occupying lesion.
METHODS: This study describes a subgroup of 10 patients with the same typical presenting symptoms (headache, vomiting, and papilledema) but without nuchal rigidity, meningeal signs, or change in mental status. Patients had normal neuroimaging studies and intracranial hypertension but also pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting central nervous system infection. From the results it can be hypothesized that those children represent a unique subgroup of viral-induced intracranial hypertension when comparing their risk factors, clinical course, treatment, and outcome with 58 patients who had idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
RESULTS: All patients with viral-induced intracranial hypertension presented with papilledema but none had reduced visual acuity or abnormal visual fields, compared with 20.7% of patients who had idiopathic intracranial hypertension. They also responded better to treatment with acetazolamide, needed a shorter duration of treatment (7.7 ± 2.6 months vs 12.2 ± 6.3 months, P = 0.03), and had no recurrences.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that children who fulfill the typical presenting signs and symptoms and all diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri other than the normal cerebrospinal fluid component may represent a unique subgroup of viral-induced intracranial hypertension and should be managed accordingly. The overall prognosis is excellent.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Visual and Neurological Outcomes Following Endovascular Stenting for Pseudotumor Cerebri Associated With Transverse Sinus Stenosis

Authors: Radvany MG, Solomon D, Nijjar S, Subramanian PS, Miller NR, Rigamonti D, Blitz A, Gailloud P, Moghekar A.

BACKGROUND:: Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) without an identifiable mass, evidence of hydrocephalus, or abnormal cerebrospinal fluid content. In the past, most cases of PTC appeared to have no identifiable etiology, and thus, they were classified as "idiopathic intracranial hypertension" (IIH). Recently, however, a subset of patients with presumed IIH has been found to have evidence of cerebral dural sinus stenoses, particularly involving one or both transverse sinuses (TS). The belief that the stenoses are the cause, rather than an effect of the increased ICP, has led investigators to recommend stenting of the stenosed sinus for the treatment of the condition. We describe detailed visual and neurological outcomes after stenting for PTC associated with hemodynamically significant dural sinus stenosis. METHODS:: All patients with PTC had initial neurological, neuro-ophthalmological, and imaging assessments. Regardless of the findings, all were treated with medical therapy. If medical therapy failed and TS stenosis was detected on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance or computed tomographic venography, catheter cerebral angiography with venous manometry was performed. If a mean pressure gradient (MPG) of 4 mm Hg or greater was present, unilateral transverse sinus stenting was performed. RESULTS:: Twelve patients with PTC and TS stenosis associated with an MPG of >4 mm Hg who failed medical therapy were identified. TS stenting significantly decreased the pressure gradient in all cases. Unilateral stenting was sufficient to reduce pressure gradients even when the stenosis was bilateral. At a mean follow-up of 16 months (range, 9-36 months), tinnitus had improved in all patients, and 10 of 12 patients had improvement in visual function. Seven patients had significant improvement in headaches. CONCLUSION:: In this small series of patients with PTC associated with TS stenosis, endovascular stent placement was generally effective in treating visual dysfunction and tinnitus, although not headaches. The optimum gradient and vascular characteristics amenable for selection of patients for stenting needs further research.

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