Brain tumor

Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases

Authors: Chowdhury FH, Haque MR, Sarker MH.

OBJECTIVES: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole.

Approach to Headache in Emergency Department

Authors: Nallasamy K, Singhi SC, Singhi P.

Headache remains a frequently encountered neurological symptom in Emergency department. Secondary causes of headache outnumber the primary entities such as migraine. Most of the secondary headaches have benign etiologies. The goal of emergent evaluation is to detect those with serious or life threatening causes. Identifying the pattern of headache helps in narrowing down the possible etiological diagnosis. A single episode of acute headache usually results from an acute infection ranging from viral URI to acute meningitis. Acute recurrent headaches are typically a feature of migraine. Chronic progressive headaches often indicate a serious underlying pathology such as a brain tumor and warrant a detailed neurological examination for signs of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and focal deficits. Children with abnormal neurological findings require a neuroimaging. CT scan usually detects most of the abnormalities. Initial stabilization and management of raised ICP takes precedence in sick children. While simple analgesics like paracetamol and ibuprofen are used for symptomatic therapy, identification and appropriate treatment of underlying conditions is necessary for complete resolution of headache.

Long-term visual outcome in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Authors: Baheti NN, Nair M, Thomas SV

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the course, outcome, and risk of relapse or late worsening in a clearly defined cohort of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) over a long period of follow-up.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with definite IIH was evaluated at the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology between 1998 and 2006. Patients' demographic data, clinical, neuro-ophthalmic examinations, and treatment details were abstracted. Patients were further categorized into three groups based on whether they improved, worsened, or relapsed on follow-up. Final visual outcome of each patient was defined according to grading of the worse eye at the last visit. Statistical analysis included t test to compare group means and chi-square test to compare proportions.

RESULTS: Of the 43 women included, visual impairment was observed in 80 eyes (93%) at presentation and it was moderate to severe in 14%. The mean CSF opening pressure at presentation did not differ significantly in those with visual impairment compared to those with normal vision. Those having early severe visual impairment had significantly higher (P = 0.015) likelihood of severe visual impairment on last follow-up. Of the total, 34 patients (79%) improved, 4 (9.3%) relapsed on follow-up after period of stability, and 5 (11.6%) worsened over 56 months follow-up (range, 26-132 months). The groups were comparable, except those who improved were younger (P<0.05). At last examination, 9% had significant vision loss.

CONCLUSION: IIH patients can have delayed worsening or relapses and about tenth of patients can have permanent visual loss early or late in the course of the disease. All patients with IIH need to be kept under long-term follow-up, with regular monitoring of visual functions.

Subscribe to RSS - Brain tumor